Absolute neutrophil count: A measure of the number of neutrophils—a type of white blood cell that fights infection—in the blood. The count can show if a person has an infection, inflammation, leukemia or other conditions. Chemotherapy can sometimes lower a person’s absolute neutrophil count.
Adjuvant therapy: "Add-on" treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation, hormone or biological therapy) aimed at killing stray cancer cells; typically it follows surgery.
Alopecia: Hair loss, a common side effect of chemotherapy
Anemia: A condition in which the body has too few red blood cells
Antiemetic: A drug that controls (or even prevents) nausea and vomiting, a common side effect of chemotherapy
Aromatase inhibitors: Drugs that reduce the female hormone estrogen; often given to postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer before or after tamoxifen
Biological therapy: Treatments targeting a specific molecule in cancer cell growth or survival; used to strengthen the immune system and lessen side effects of other treatments
Biopsy: Removal and examination of tissues, cells or fluids to determine if disease is present
Blood cell count: A test that checks the number of red and white blood cells and platelets in your blood
Carcinomas: Solid tumors that start on surfaces of the body and in the lining of glands, such as the breast, lung and ovary. Often, the term adenocarcinoma is used.
Colony-stimulating factors: White blood cell boosters
Complementary therapy: Alternative treatments that are used in addition to conventional medicine. Complementary medicine is not used as a replacement for regular therapy.
Granulocyte: A type of white blood cell that fights bacteria and infections. Types of granulocytes are basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils.
Hormonal therapy: Drug treatment that works against hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Hormonal therapy can treat breast cancers in one of two ways: by lowering the amount of the hormone estrogen in the body or by blocking the action of estrogen on breast cancer cells.
Imaging studies: Tests that use a magnetic field or radio waves to produce images of the body’s inside. Imaging studies for cancer include X-rays, CAT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound.
Infusion: Intravenous delivery of meds or fluids
Intravenous: Given through a vein
Leukocyte: A white blood cell, including neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes
Lymphangiogram (LAG): A test in which you are injected with a dye, then given an X-ray to examine your lymphatic system.
Lymphedema: Swelling (often in the arm) from fluid buildup after lymph nodes are surgically removed or treated with radiation.
Mastectomy: A surgical procedure that involves removing the whole breast, which can help prevent the spread of cancer.
Metastasis: Spread of cancer cells, through blood or lymph, from the primary tumor to other parts of the body.
Neutropenia: A condition marked by low levels of white blood cells called neutrophils, which makes a person more vulnerable to infection. Chemotherapy can sometimes cause neutropenia.
Peripheral neuropathy: Nerve damage in the hands and/or feet, which can cause pain or numbness. Peripheral neuropathy can sometimes be a side effect of cancer treatments.
Port: A device inserted under the skin that allows medications (such as chemo), blood products and nutrients to be given intravenously. A port eliminates the need for repeated needle sticks to start an IV line or draw blood.
Prognosis: The chance of recovery versus recurrence
Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy radiation from X-rays, gamma rays and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors
Receptors: Sites on or in cells where particular substances can attach, causing cells to react—in the case of cancer, usually to grow.
Remission: When cancer symptoms disappear or are significantly reduced
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): Drugs that reduce the female hormone estrogen; often given to premenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast cancer.
Sentinel lymph node: First node in line as fluid drains from a primary breast tumor. It is the site where cancer is likely to spread first.
Thrombocytopenia: A shortage of platelets (cells that help blood clot). Symptoms include easy bruising, nosebleeds, bleeding gums and/or small dots on the skin.
Tissue margin: Tissue around a cancer site. A negative tissue margin test means no cancer cells were found; a positive test means cancer cells remain and more surgery is needed.