Type 2 Diabetes: Diagnosis
Your healthcare team will perform several exams to determine if you have type 2 diabetes. Your doctor will do a general physical exam, during which he or she will check your heart, lungs, blood pressure, and more. Since your risk for type 2 diabetes goes up if you have a family history of the disease, your doctor will want to know as much as possible about your health and that of your family, as well as any symptoms you are experiencing.
Your doctor may choose to give you one or all of the following tests: a fasting plasma glucose test (FPG), an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a random plasma glucose test (RPG), all of which measure blood sugar levels.
A glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c or A1c) blood test is also commonly given. It shows your average blood sugar levels for the past 2-3 months. You'll also have a urinalysis (a test of your urine) to determine the presence of sugar in the urine, and to see if you might have a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTIs can develop when urine has a high sugar content.
If your doctor suspects you have developed health complications, he or she may conduct a fasting lipid profile, a test that measures the fats in your blood after a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water). Your doctor will also examine your legs, feet, eyes, heart and kidneys.
After diagnosis, your doctor may want you to undergo annual urine albumin testing. Albumin is a protein made by the liver. An albumin test, which can detect kidney damage, measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.